Agricultural marketing articles
01. Importance and Objectives of Agricultural Marketing in India
02. Inadequacies of Present Marketing System
03. Characteristics of Agricultural Products
04. Agricultural Marketing in India
05. Improvement of Agricultural Marketing System
06. Cooperative Marketing in India
07. Warehousing in India
08. Ideal Marketing System
09. Scientific Marketing of Farm Products
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You are reading article on Agricultural Marketing in India
Agricultural marketing systems in India
The existing systems of agricultural marketing in India are as briefly described here.
1. Sale to moneylenders and tradersA considerable part of the total produce is sold by the farmers to the village traders and moneylenders. According to an estimate 85% of wheat, 75% of oil seeds in U.P., 90% of jute in West Bengal and 60% of wheat, 70% of oil seeds and 35% of cotton in Punjab are sold by the farmers in the villages themselves. Often the money lenders act as a commission agent of the wholesale trader.
2. Hats and shantiesHats are village markets often held once or twice a week, while shanties are also village markets held at longer intervals or on special occasions. The agents of the wholesale merchants, operating in different mandies also visit these markets.
The area covered by a "hat" usually varies from 5 to 10 miles. Most of "hats" are very poorly equipped, are uncovered and lack storage, drainage, and other facilities. It is important to observe that only small and marginal farmers sell their produce in such markets. The big farmers with large surplus go to the larger wholesale markets.
3. Mandies or wholesale marketsOne wholesale market often serves a number of villages and is generally located in a city. In such mandies, business is carried on by arhatiyas. The farmers sell their produce to these arhatiyas with the help of brokers, who are generally the agents of arhatiyas. Because of the malpractices of these middlemen, problems of transporting the produce from villages to mandies, the small and marginal farmers are hesitant of coming to these mandies.
The arhatiyas of these mandies sell off the produce to the retail merchants. However, paddy, cotton and oilseeds are sold off to the mills for processing. The marketing system for sugarcane is different. The farmers sell their produce directly to the sugar mills.
4. Co-operative marketingTo improve the efficiency of the agricultural marketing and to save farmers from the exploitation and malpractices of middlemen, emphasis has been laid on the development of co-operative marketing societies. Such societies are formed by farmers to take advantage of collective bargaining.
A marketing society collects surplus from it members and sell it in the mandi collectively. This improves the bargaining power of the members and they are able to obtain a better price for the produce. In addition to the sale of produce, these societies also serve the members in a number of other ways.
VIII. Improvement of Agricultural Marketing System
Government of India has adopted a number of measures to improve agricultural marketing, the important ones being - establishment of regulated markets, construction of warehouses, provision for grading, and standarization of produce, standarisation of weight and measures, daily broadcasting of market prices of agricultural crops on All India Radio, improvement of transport facilities, etc.
1. Marketing surveysIn the first place the government has undertaken marketing surveys of various goods and has published these surveys. These surveys have brought out the various problems connected with the marketing of goods and have made suggestions for their removal.
2. Grading and standardizationThe government has done much to grade and standardize many agricultural goods. Under the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act the Government has set up grading stations for commodities like ghee, flour, eggs, etc. The graded goods are stamped with the seal of the Agricultural Marketing Department -AGMARK The «Agmark" goods have a wider market and command better prices.
A Central Quality Control Laboratory has been set up at Nagpur and eight other regional laboratories in different parts of the country with the purpose of testing the quality and quality of agricultural products applying for the Government's "Agmark" have been created The Government is further streamlining quality control enforcement and inspection and improvement in grading.
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